Unpacking TPACK…

Gómez, M. (2015). When Circles Collide: Unpacking TPACK Instruction in an Eighth-Grade Social Studies Classroom. Computers in the Schools32(3/4), 278–299.

Coming into teaching from a graduate program in anthropology where the concern was not on how to teach but on how to research, the idea of evaluating the knowledge needed to effectively teach much less teach with technology is novel to this author.  Thus while the overall importance of Mishra’s and Koehler’s (2006) work on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) towards understanding the practice of teaching with technology is evident to this author, the actual process of implementation within the actual class design was difficult to visualize. To clarify the steps to how Mishra’s and Koehler’s model is applied and is implemented within course design, Gomez’s (2015)  illustrated applying TPACK to a case study of a single 8th grade teacher and two social studies classroom. Using data collected through classroom observations, formal and interviews, and the analysis of artifacts produced, Gomez used a constant comparative approach to organize the data along themes which related to the
intersections of TPACK: technology knowledge (TK), content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), technology content knowledge (TCK), technology pedagogical knowledge (TPK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) and examined when and how these intersected within the framework of the class. Interestingly , when interviewing the teacher of the class, he offered up that he was designing his class not with TPACK in mind but rather as a way to reach his desired goal – to teach students to think historically – and that technology is only a tool that helps him to engage them in doing this by helping him to shape the lesson in a way that meets this goal.

Overall this is only a single case study so aspects of design towards implementation are bound to vary by teacher, school and students. The act of selecting this class and teacher was not random, rather the teacher was recommended to the researcher as someone who uses technology regularly in the classroom. In addition, the school utilized was a K-12 private school withone-to-one technology and thus it this scenario presents one where there is a great degree of technological access and affordances which may not be available to all teachers and schools. Gomez recognizes these limitations and approapriately makes no generalizations from these oberservations and interviews which should be broadly applied.

Despite this, this articles is offering one example of how in TPACK might be implemented in course design. Based on what Gomez (2015) observed, he does acknledge that this case example does breaks down the idea that the components of TPACK must be intersecting concurrently. Rather he notes “TPACK no longer becomes the intersection of these three types of knowledge, but rather it becomes the layered combination of these three
types of knowledge” (p. 295). In addition, Gomez (2015) highlights how teachers may approach TPACK very differently in implementation as the teacher of the 8th grade classes studied indicated that “teaching effectively with technology (TPACK) begins with an understanding of what he wants his students to learn” (p. 296). Therefore he frames TPACK within a framework of what he wants students to know.  Gomez presents that this may be a common way that teachers may implement TPACK and therefore “understanding the role students play in making decisions about using technology in instruction” should be considered more within the TPACK design (p. 296).

Mishra, P. and Koehler M.J. (2006) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 2006, Vol.108(6), p.1017-1054

Designing Effective Qualitative Research

Hoepfl, M. C. (1997) Choosing qualitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology Education, 9, 47–63

According to Hoepfl (1997), research in technology education has largely relied on quantitative research, possibly due to its own limitations in knowledge and skill on qualitative research design. Desiring to increase the implementation of qualitatively designed research, Hoepfl offers a “primer” on the purpose, processes and practice of qualitative research. Presenting qualitative research as expanding knowledge beyond what quantitative can achieve, Hoepfl (1997) sees it as having three critical purposes. First it can help understand issues about which little is known. Secondly it can offer new insight on what we already know. Thirdly, qualitative research can more easily convey the depth of data beyond what quantitative can. In addition, since qualitative data is often presented in ways which are similar to how people experience their world, he offers that it finds greater resonance with the reader. With regard to the processes of qualitative research, Hoepfl (1997) denotes that due to its nature, qualitative research design requires different consideration  as the “particular design of a qualitative study depends on the purpose of the inquiry, what information will be most useful, and what information will have the most credibility” (p.50). This leads to a flexibility – not finality – of research strategy before data collection and a de-emphasis on the confidence of data being a result solely of random sampling strategies and numbers. This flexibility in design strategy means a great deal of thought must be made on how to best situate data collection with recognition that actions in field may require adjustments of design as some questions fail or if new patterns emerge. In terms of strategies, the author offers up purposeful sampling options and discusses how maximum variation sampling may lead to both depth of description and sensitivity for emergent pattern recognition. He also outlines some of the various forms of data available in qualitative research and the stages of data analysis. In doing this, Hoepfl (1997) recognizes that qualitative data is much more difficult to collect and analyze than quantitative data and that often the research may require numerous cyclical movements through the various stages of collection and analysis. Importantly he addresses the practices of the researcher and reviewer in considering authority and trustworthiness in qualitative research by examining issues of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability.

In examining Hoepfl’s work, he offers a quality start to understanding the strengths and struggles of qualitative research. He correctly argues that the ability for qualitative research to have increasing acceptance within technology education rests on the ability of the researcher to address the questions of authority and trustworthiness which are more easily (albeit possibly erroneous) accepted in quantitative research. However  there were other aspects which are inherent in qualitative research which he gives almost no treatment to at all. These include consideration of  how relationships become built and defined between subjects and researcher and the impacts these can have on subject behavior. Hoepfl (1997) makes mention of these relationships and the risk of altering participant behavior denoting that “the researcher must be aware of, and work to minimize.” (p.  53) but  he offers no process for either recognizing when this occurs within the data nor how to actually go about minimizing this.  When it comes to the ethics of human subject interaction, Hoepfl (1997)  denotes that “the researcher must consider the legal and ethical responsibilities associated with naturalistic observation” (p. 53) but earlier offered that limiting the knowledge of the researcher’s identity and purpose or even hiding them may be appropriate. This is a problematic statement given informed consent guidelines and outlines a key aspect of information missing in this primer – that of how to consider human subject research ethics within qualitative research design. Since Hoepfl is offering a general guide to qualitative research and since the existence of IRB’s and the primacy guidelines of informed consent were established in 1974 by the National Research Act,  one would have expected at least some consideration of those guidelines, a mentioning of informed consent, or at least a discussion of how to handle the sensitive data that may come with qualitative data collection.

In reflecting on the applicability of Hoepfl’s work to my research interests, the emphasis on what qualitative research can bring to the educational technology table is enlightening as I did not recognize how much of a new approach this was to education as it was something of a staple to my anthropological education. Of particular interest was Hoepfl discussion of maximum variation sampling. He cites Patton in saying

“The maximum variation sampling strategy turns that apparent weakness into a strength by applying the following logic: Any common patterns that emerge from great variation are of particular interest and value in capturing the core experiences and central, shared aspects or impacts of a program” (Hoepfl, 1997 p.52)

This statement and his discussion of trustworthiness connected to a recent article I read on generalizing in educational research written by Ercikan and Roth’s (2014). In particular, the authors discuss the reliance on quantitative research for its supposed ability to be generalized but then break down this assumption to argue that qualitative data actually has more applicability since, if properly designed, can create essentialist generalizations. These are:

“the result of a systematic interrogation of “the particular case by constituting it as a ‘particular instance of the possible’… in order to extract general or invariant properties….In this approach, every case is taken as expressing the underlying law or laws; the approach intends to identify invariants in phenomena that, on the surface, look like they have little or nothing in common”(p. 10).

Thus by looking at “central, shared aspects” denoted by Hoepfl through maximum variation sampling and discerning the essential aspects which underlie the patterns, qualitative research could “identify the work and processes that produce phenomena.” Once this is established, the testability of the generalization is done by examining it to any other case study. If issues of population heterogeneity are also considered within the design of the qualitative data collection, the authors then argue that the ability to generalize from data is potentially greater with qualitative research.

Additional References

Ercikan, K. and Roth W-M (2014) Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims. Teachers College Record Volume 116 (5): 1-28